With a complete lack of control in the upbringing, parents go about their business and do not give the child due attention, therefore they are forced to seek outside communication and support, and often such children end up in bad companies. The other extreme is hyperprotection. Parents control every step of the child, try to take part in all their affairs. Sometimes it borders on despotism and abuse. The child grows up in a constant atmosphere of anger, which, of course, affects the formation of character. As an option of this type, one can single out the type of parenting when the child is put at the forefront, and they begin to get used to the fact that everything in the family revolves around them. Such children grow up selfish and self-confident, unable to soberly assess their real capabilities in the future.
Sometimes, from childhood, parents inspire the child that they must justify their hopes and expectations, thereby imposing increased moral responsibility on them. As a result, children become nervous and experience psychological breakdowns.
The concept of rational education based on strict discipline penetrated family life in the 17th century. The attention of parents began to attract all aspects of children’s life. But the function of organized preparation of children for adulthood was not assumed by the family, but by a special public institution – a school designed to educate skilled workers and exemplary citizens.
In total, 5 types of improper parenting are distinguished:
1) neglect. On the part of parents: complete or partial lack of attention to the child, lack of responsibility for their actions. On the part of the child: lack of parental authority, neglect of moral and ethical standards. In the younger preschool and primary school ages, there are attempts to attract the attention of parents in the form of tantrums, bad behavior, outright disobedience. At a later age – leaving home, the risk of becoming addicted to drugs or alcohol;
2) hyperprotection. On the part of parents: constant vigilant control and excessive care for the child. Several development options:
- indulgence in any of the child’s wishes. The child grows spoiled, selfish, conflicted, greedy, incapable of communicating with peers;
- excessive concern for the health of the child. The child develops inferiority complexes, they communicate with their peers with a certain level of difficultly, they are silent and scared;
- strong parenting, constant decrees, full control, lack of independence and self-expression. The child becomes non-initiative, depressed, sedentary, and in the case of a strong personality of the child – constant scandals with parents about freedom, leaving home;
3) hard parenting. On the part of the parents: abuse, complete submission of the child to the will of the parents, often education with the use of physical punishment. On the part of the child: lethargy, timidity, secret anger;
4) increased moral responsibility. On the part of parents: requirements and requests that do not correspond to the age of the child. The desire to see in the child responsibility, independence, independence, shifting responsibility for the affairs of other family members onto them. On the part of the child: aggressive attitude towards the ward member of the family, secret anger, aggression in case of the unstable mental state of the child. There may be situations when the child assumes the role of “head of the family”. Often this style of upbringing is characteristic of a single-parent family, where the mother shifts responsibility to her son;
5) contradictory types of parenting. On the part of parents: the use of incompatible parenting styles. The constant conflict on this basis. On the part of the child: bifurcation, spoiling, often manifests an inability to develop the weaknesses of the character, and therefore increased insecurity and susceptibility.
Now you know the most common types of bad parenting. Knowledge is power, but you should put your knowledge to use, otherwise, it is useless. If you don’t have a partner to start a family with yet – you can meet many foreign girlfriends by using an online dating service, thankfully, there are a lot of them to find on the internet.
The fundamental principles that must be adhered to in the family were formulated by P.F. Lesgaft.
The primary concern of the family is to ensure the correct hygienic conditions for children’s development. The second condition is the lack of arbitrariness in the actions of the educator. The third requirement is the strict correspondence of words and deeds when dealing with a child. “It must be firmly remembered that the child is mainly affected by the deed, not the word;”
We must not forget that the family for the child, for some time, is a model of society. For a child, the love of parents, trust between family members and sincerity in relationships are important. It is also necessary to involve the child in the life of the family and consider them an equal member of a family. A very important principle is the willingness to help the child in difficulties and failures, to answer questions of interest and concern to them. And this applies not only to school lessons. Children should feel loved and desired. You cannot physically punish a child no matter what they do. But it is not recommended to indulge them in all their whims. In the family, the child receives all types of education.
Due to deviations in the family, abnormal behavior is often formed, which requires psychological assistance from a specialist. From a biological point of view, mental disorders are a disease that medicine, in turn, must research and treat. The prevailing factor in such diseases is the genetic one: chromosomal abnormalities, anomalies of the prenatal period, genes of mental illness.
Attitude to people suffering from mental disorders depended on a particular historical era. In the Middle Ages, they were considered to be the devil’s spawn. This continued until the XVII century. In 1792, the French physician P. Pinel began to research the insane and tried to find the roots of the disease. Already in the XIX century. Doctors seriously engaged in the classification of mental disorders. Thus a medical approach arose.
At the beginning of the XX century. a psychological approach arose and began to develop. Prominent psychologists of that time, such as the German psychologist Z. Freud with his theory of the unconscious and C. Jung, who studies the collective subconscious, were actively involved in this problem. Also, many so-called currents arose: for example, behaviorism, whose representatives believed that abnormal behavior is a reaction to external environmental factors and upbringing.
Representatives of the cognitive direction believed that the cause of abnormal behavior is the patient’s inability to objectively assess the situation.
But in 1960, an international classification of mental disorders was adopted. We distinguished neuroses that arise with internal psychological contradictions; organic psychoses – with disorders of the nervous system; functional psychoses that are still not fully understood.
Currently, many diseases have already been investigated and described. For example, down syndrome is caused by an extra chromosome of 21 pairs.
Whether a gene is dominant or recessive depends on the transmission of diseases by genes. If the gene is dominant, then the disease manifests itself; if the gene is recessive, that is, suppressed, then the child is the carrier of the disease, but it may not manifest itself during life.
Cognitive processes are difficult for children with mental retardation. They begin to walk, speak later than children with a normal level of development. Among the forms of impaired intellectual activity in children, the following are distinguished: those associated with a violation of environmental conditions and upbringing, with prolonged asthenic conditions, with different types of infantilism, or with impaired speech, hearing, reading and writing caused by somatic diseases.
In the national classification, significant group differences are found in the methods of raising children, emotional reactions, sexual behavior, interests, etc., and in performing many tests for assessing abilities. In all such studies, the nature and degree of difference between the groups depend on the trait being studied. Since each culture or subculture creates the conditions for the development of a specific set of abilities and personality traits specific to it, comparing individuals by such global indicators as IQ or general emotional mood may not make much sense. Races are populations that differ in the relative frequency of certain genes. They are formed whenever a group becomes isolated for geographical or social reasons. Thus, the contributions of cultural and biological factors in the origin of differences are difficult to separate. When comparing races, the average differences between groups are much smaller than the range of individual differences within each group. Consequently, group distributions overlap significantly. It turns out that an individual’s belonging to any group serves as a poor basis for expecting a strong development of any psychological trait in them.